Vatican sarcophagi

In the Vatican Museums, one can admire a wonderful collection of early Christian sarcophagi. Most date from the fourth century CE. This was a crucial period in the history of Christianity. In the middle of the previous century Christians still suffered persecutions under the emperors Decius and Valerianus. Around the…

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Roman firsts

This post is basically an index of Roman ‘firsts’. Search this index if you are looking for the first time in history that the Romans staged gladiatorial fights, elected two plebeian consuls or used elephants on the battlefield. The links below will redirect to other posts where the events are…

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The Great Threat from the North: The Year 101 BCE

Summary The consul Manius Aquillius defeats Athenion and ends the Second Servile War on Sicily; The consul Gaius Marius and the proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus annihilate the Cimbri at the Battle of Vercellae; Marius and Catulus hold a joint triumph; Marius works together with Glaucia and Saturninus and is elected…

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The Great Threat from the North: The Year 102 BCE

Summary Gaius Marius annihilates the Teutones and Ambrones at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae; Quintus Lutatius Catulus gives up the Alpine passes; The Cimbri overrun Catulus’ defences at the river Atiso; The praetor Gaius Servilius fails to achieve anything on Sicily during the Second Servile War; The censor Quintus Caecilius…

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The Great Threat from the North: The Years 104-103 BCE

Summary Gaius Marius celebrates a triumph for his victory over King Jugurtha of Numidia (104 BCE); Marius takes command of the new army raised by Publius Rutilius Rufus and subjects it to a rigorous training programme (104 BCE); Start of the Second Servile War on Sicily (104 BCE); The praetor…

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