The War against Aristonikos: The Years 130-129 BCE

Summary The former censor Appius Cladius Pulcher dies (ca. 130 BCE); The consul Marcus Perperna defeats and captures Aristonikos, but dies soon afterwards (130-129 BCE); The populares Marcus Fulvius Flaccus and Gaius Papirius Carbo become members of the land reform committee (ca. 129 BCE); The Lex Sempronia agraria leads to…

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Gaius Gracchus: The Years 124-123 BCE

Summary Gaius Gracchus is elected people’s tribune (124 BCE); The consul and later proconsul Gaius Sextius Calvinus defeats the Salluvii and the Vocontii of Southern Gaul and founds the colony of Aquae Sextiae (124-123 BCE); Gaius Gracchus launches an ambitious legislative program that includes bills about land reforms, grain prices,…

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Gaius Gracchus: The Years 122-121 BCE

Summary The popular assembly adopts the Lex Sempronia de provinciis consularibus, which stipulates that the Senate selects the consular provinces before the consuls themselves are elected (122 BCE); Gaius Gracchus is opposed by his colleague, the people’s tribune Marcus Livius Drusus (122 BCE); Gaius Gracchus’ proposal to grant citizenship to…

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The Rise of Marius and Jugurtha: The Years 120-118 BCE

Summary The people’s tribune Quintus Decius puts the former consul Lucius Opimius on trial for executing Gaius Gracchus’ supporters without trial; Opimius is acquitted (120 BCE); Gaius Marius is elected people’s tribune (120 BCE); A law tabled by the people’s tribune Lucius Calpurnius Bestia allows the former consul Publius Popilius…

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Viriathus: The Years 145-143 BCE

Summary The consul Quintus Fabius Maximus Aemilianus successfully campaigns against Viriathus, but fails to end the war against the Lusitanians (145-144 BCE); King Ptolemaios VI Philometor of Egypt defeats Alexander Balas, ruler of the Seleucid Empire; the latter is succeeded by Demetrios II Nikator; Ptolemaios himself succumbs to his injuries…

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Viriathus: The Years 142-140 BCE

Summary The consul Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus fights against Viriathus and the Lusitanians with mixed results (142-141 BCE); Scipio Aemilianus and Lucius Mummius Achaicus serve as censors (142-141 BCE); The new Jewish High Priest Simon confirms the treaty of friendship with the Romans (142 BCE); Viriathus is officially recognised by…

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